Shikshapatri (Shlocks 151-175)
Purification of wealth or money, means repaying a debt. The repayment of such borrowing from a wealthier man should not be kept secret, but should be carried out in witness of a person. Parashar Muni says: 'Intelligent ones should not hide repayment of a debt and their lineage.' Kashi Khanda says: 'Those nine should be in public: Hidden sins, uncriticised acts, a debt, repayment of a debt, own lineage, buying and selling, Kanyadaan (woman's share given to a daughter in her marriage), and a virtuous rise.' Yagyavalkya has said about repayments of a debt: The account of the moneylender should be closed by himself or by others. The payment of such debt should be carried out in public through a witness. If the document of such a debt either of his own or of his father is not available, then such document should be created afresh without involving a current witness and such debt should be settled forever. Such process is called a settlement in our day to day language.
Wicked persons, means those who are practising sins and are against the religion. They oppose God. There should be no dealing with such people. Vyavahara Samuchchaya says: There should be no relation with the people opposing, God, practicing sins, hypocrite and short tempered.
Showing more about such donation, it is said in Kashi Khanda that a donation becomes an everlasting donation when it is given to any one from these nine: A proper person, a friend, a poor, an orphan, a favourer, a mother, a father and a Guru (preceptor). The donation given to any one from these nine becomes futile: a Bhat (singer of the praises), a Charan (a royal bard), a thief an alchemist, a rascal, a cheater, a wrestler, and a public praiser. It is said in Parashar Smriti that a donation to such one becomes futile if such a receiver sells to the others the things of such donation. Also it is a futile donation if it is given to person who has fallen after a rise. And a donation becomes futile if it is given from an unjustified income. A donation is not fruitful if it is given to a non-brahmin, a fallen one, a thief, a hater of his own perceptor, an unthankful person and common priest of whole village. The priest of whole village, Husband of a debauch woman, a trader of the Vedic knowledge, one in whose house a wife has a kept-husband, one who is a henpecked husband, a snake charmer and a servant if given a donation, such donation becomes futile for the donor. Thus these Sixteen donations are not fruitful. Now, Bhavishyat Purana says about a proper donation: To donate to a virtuous person, a donation from a just earning or possession is the main attribute of a donation . Mahabharat says, 'Oh Yadhishthira ! That donation becomes an everlasting and eternal donation which is given from a just earning and donated with earnest faith and with proper rituals.' Yagyavalkya has said: In a manner not creating any controversy in the family, one can donate any thing excepting his wife and his son. If lineage continues after the one, the one should not donate everything of him. One should not donate to somebody else after promising a donation to the one. If there are many children in a family and if there is no opposition in the family for a donation, then after satisfying the needs of clothing and food for the family, one should donate from remaining savings, but should not donate any thing by creating a conflict for the same in the family. Vyasji has shown alternative in this: If a great Brahmin soul comes to the house, the householder desiring self emancipation, should donate food to a visitor at the cost of the family members. These sentence applies to visiting ascetics and saints. In Daan Khanda, Daksha, has described the things which can not be donated: common property, things borrowed from others, things received in deposit, things of hypothication, wife, women's wealth, things received from others and deposit amount should not be given in donation. These nine things should not be donated even in the times of greatest trouble. The thing for which there are many owners, is called a common property. The ornaments and clothes borrowed from others for personal use have been called a borrowed thing. Trusted items means such items which have been given by some one to the house members by asking them to hand it over to the head of the house. Ornaments and precious items belonging to a woman are called woman's wealth. Deposit means a thing kept in the house by some one by considering the presence of the owner of the house or without any consideration. It is also said that donation of a used cloth, donation given after an insult, insufficient donation, donation of an unclean thing, donation from an unjust income, are not just as the donations. Also it is said that donation of gold, silver and copper made to an ascetic becomes a fultile donation, and instead of earning punyas for a donor it becomes it becomes an irreligious act. Smrits have said that a donar donating gold to an ascetic, consigned to hell after his death. Deval Rishi has said that a donor who is desirous of Punya should not donate cooked food to a householder, a milk product to a Vanprastha (one who is in third stage of his life) and should not give money to a beggar.
Some more has been said in Daan Dharm about a taker of such donation. Those who are without knowledge and penance should stay away from taking a donation. Because a learned one removes through his knowledge the drawbacks incurred to him due to accepting a donation. The act of taking a donation removes brahmic light of a Brahmin. But the sufferer families should take a good donation from a Sat Purusha. Vyasji has said in Daan Mayukha : A man receiving a donation of deer skin, a bed given after some ones death and an impregnated she lamb in Kurukshetra area never takes again a birth as a man. Iron, sesame seeds, a buffalo, oil, salt, a cow made of sesame seeds and jewel are called disastrous donations. It is said in Daan Khanda of Brahm Purana that a donation even to save his own life, should not be taken by the one in an area about the four hand length of a river stream. Yagyavalkya has said in connection with the donations that a killer of animals, a driver of a oil extracting mill, a distiller, a prostitute and a king are wicked by nature in multiple of ten to each other in their merit order given above. Here, a king means such a ruler who rules his state by disowning the limitation of the scriptures . Bhaskaracharya has said that no donation should be accepted from a king who flouts the scriptures. Mitakshara says that a donation should be accepted from such a king who donates without begging to him for the same. Evil doers if donates without a demand to them, such donation should be accepted form them. But an uncalled for donation should not be accepted from a prostitute, an impotent, a fallen one or an enemy. Because in Prayaschita Mayukha, Lord Manu has shown a way of atonement for accepting a donation unknowingly from an improper person: If a donation has been received from a unjust -improper-person, such a receiver of a donation should stay in a cow hut, living on the milk of cow and chanting hymn of Goddess Gayatri for the three thousand times with a rock steady mind and divine bliss.
Yagyavalkya has said about the wars, 'One who says that he is yours, an impotent, one who has no arrows, one who is affectious, one who has turned back from a war, and those who are witnessing a war should not be killed. This Shlokas has suffixed 'etc' to the list of these forbidden people, therefore, a horse, a warrior without a chariot driver, one with the folded hands, one with untied hair, one who has given away a fight, one sitting on a tree, one sitting on a bare ground, one drinking water, one eating food, one without protective shield, a bard, a messenger, a cow, a brahmin, a she elephant, a chariot and a king should not be killed by a king. It is preached in Gautam, Shankha and other Smritis. Knowers of virtuous living and scriptures have preached that the war is the last alternative to be chosen as a solution: Vidur Niti says that an arrow released from the hands may or may not kill a person, but the intellect released from the brain of an intelligent one kills the king with his entire kingdom.' And therefore, Manu Maharaj suggests reprimand as a first step of punishing, then in order comes oral punishment, monitory punishment, and in last is beheading. But has very clearly said that it is most proper to punish wickeds for founding and strengthening religious duties in the state. For this, there is one statement of king Ashwapati in Chhandogya Upanishada: In my kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no alcoholic, no body is without of Agnihotra, nobody is an ignorant and nobody is a debauch, then how could there be any debauch women?' Kamandak Niti Shastra has said, 'It is not proper to exempt from punishment a sinner, if he be a brother, a son, an elder, a father-in-law or a maternal uncle, though he has fallen from the religion of course, there are some situations where such punishments are exempted. Bhagwat says, 'Oh wife of the brave one! Those who are non-brahmin and have committed a sin, I punish them. In all three Lokas, I don't see any body free from grief and living happily except of devotees of God.' I hold canon of punishment in all seven islands excepting lineage of Brahmins and devotees of Bhagwan.' 'There should be no impact of royal majesty on a brahmin lineage adorned with endurance, penance and knowledge and Parmatma (supreme soul) is their deity.' Bharat says that, accordingly the force of Kaliyug gives a way to the force of virtues of a king. King is the cause of destiny or time or the destiny or time is the cause of a king or the polity. There should be no doubt in it that the king is the cause of time. 'If a king lives religiously, his subjects live a religious life. And if acts a king sinfully, his subject becomes sinful. If acts moderately, subjects too act in a moderate way, subjects follow their king; as a king would be, the subjects would be like that.' It is the wisdom of Chanakya.
Shloka has 'etc', therefore, it should be understood well that from whom the toll should be recovered and from whom should it be not. The toll money means the levies to be paid to the state on taking goods across river, in a town or in the streets and markets. Mitakshara says about the incidents where such toll should not be collected: No toll should be charged on immetational ornaments, on the goods received in begging, on the remaining part of a thing already taxed, and from the artisans, children, messengers, ascetics and learners of Vedas. Also there should be no toll levied on the wealth of God.
The attributes of a chaste woman are as under: She is sad in the pains of her husband, she is happy in happiness of her husband. She lives a dull and unglamorous life while her husband is away from her. She sacrifices her body in fire and becomes a Sati an death of her husband. The chaste woman with these attributes attains respect like great woman Arundhati. Here, the suggestion of becoming a Sati is only for those women who are not desirous of moksha and are not capable to live a life of celibacy and are desirous of the pleasures of heaven. If they are not acting in the like manner, they would indulge in debauchery etc evil acts and will draw her generations in the hellish pains of the hell. Great saint Garga Muni has said, 'The woman, who after the death of her husband, lives a free life would be consigned to hell with her three generations. Therefore, the woman who can not live a life of a celibate, would be a fit case for becoming a Sati. Moreover Manu Maharaj has said, 'A saintly woman either should have to live a life of a celibate or should become a Sati after her husband.' Brahmvaivarta Purana says: There is no path for a woman in Kaliyuga for attaining her ultimate destination except the path of becoming a Sati after her husband. For this, Nirnaya Sindhu provides a scholastic treatise: This is only for those woman who are not capable of maintaining celibacy in their everyday life. Mitakshara treatise of Acharadhyaya says: Those women who have no desires of Moksha and are desirous of tempting pleasures of heaven, should become Sati after their husband. 'The heavenly pleasures are very much available in the state of absolute celibacy as per Kashikhanda of Nirnaya Sindhu. The woman practicing widowhood after the death of her husband, gets her husband again and enjoys heavenly pleasure with her husband. Mitakshara may be referred for more details on this topic.
The woman should not live without father, mother, son, brother, father-in-law, mother-in-law or maternal uncle, otherwise she becomes a prey to public criticism in absence of her husband. Vigyaneshwar has said, 'The woman when is in her childhood and adolescence, a father should protect her against untoward acts, in her youth, she should be protected by her husband, when her husband is nomore and when she is in her old age, her sons should protect her. And in case, if exists no body as such, then people of her own caste should look after her. And in absence of caste people, the king should take care of such woman. As Smritis have said, the king acts like a sustainer and a master, when relatives and community are not existing. In nutshell women are never to be given an independent life. It means that, a husbandless woman should not disconnect her self from her paternal relations. Manu Maharaj says, 'A woman from any age group-child-dolesent-youth or old - should not do any work independently even in her own house. A woman should never desire a separation from her father, husband and son, because such separation causes ill talks for both the sides.
And if they are youth, she should not converse with them without a purposeful work, though they may be from relatives or non-relatives. This includes talking eye- to-eye. Achaarasaar says, 'A brahmin, a widow, a cotton cloth, an earthen utensil, etc become impure on a touch, shadow or a glance at it. The word touch needs a careful treatment. That is to be treated on this line: The scriptures have permitted a life of celibacy to such widow women who are either capable of living a life of celibacy or are pregnant or have infants to feed them. As a male celibate loses his hard earned celibacy on preaching Katha-varta to a woman or on a eye-to-eye look at the woman, in similar way a woman celibate loses her hard earned celibacy on listening to praises or follies of a man or on looking eye-to-eye a man. And loss of celibacy is loss of everything for them. Therefore, a widow should not touch a man. Smriti Artha Saar has said: A widow if becomes amorous on seeing a man, falls from her celibacy and goes to hell with her past three generations. Parashara has said: A woman with her wicked mind desires for other man, becomes a sinner and goes to hellish hell. Therefore, Manu Maharaj has said in Shudra Kamalakara: The woman, whose husband has expired, should burn to ashes root to leaves her sensual desires, and should not look even to the faces of other men. They should live a life of a celibate with complete hold on all sense organs. In the same scripture, Yama has said: Eighty eight thousand celibate Munis from Brahmin caste died without producing progeny practicing celibacy on death of her husband attains heaven like a celibate, though she may have no son. Here no objection to the touch by a near relative is applicable only in the case of her protection. Everybody should know this. Parashara also says: Deities too are incapable to know truly the acts, character and mind of a woman, then what could be said for the men on this earth with the mind torn by sensual desires. Therefore, such woman should be protected well by her father-in-law, brother-in-law, father and brother. The relatives should keep such woman under their control, as they are bound by their nature to becomes amorous. Manu Smriti says: They should not touch even to their relatives without an important work. This relaxation is valid for emergency work. In such circumstances there is no draw back if spoken or touched. In short, one should act in such manner so that the person and personal religion are not harmed.
As the women of the world have shared with Indra one quarter sin of the Brahmhatya committed by him, that share of sin in women appears every month in the form of menstruation. This should not be kept secret. Such woman in menstruation, should not join domestic chores, and should not touch others. The touch of a woman in her menstruation period attracts sin of killing a brahmin. Shrimad Bhagwat has said,' women have accepted that share of sin with a carnal desire and therefore it appears in every woman every month in the form of menstruation. Therefore, touching utensils and other domestic objects during such period attracts major calamity. More details on this can be had from famous religious story of "Rushi Panchami Katha."
Here in, all the women have been restricted, but a doubt raised in these of contradicting Smritis allowing touch of real mother, step mother or a perceptors wife as it is not harmful as per those Smritis. For removal of this anomaly it is to be clarified that such touch and a permission for such touch stands valid only in the circumstances of Upakurvanaka. Means, if mother has expired and if her other son/sons are not there to perform funeral rites such as giving fire to her pyre, in that case a celibate-son can do it without attracting any sin or drawback. Such a touch is not harmful. Now, with reference to this, Muni Deval has said in his Trishata Shloki Tika, 'A celibate should not carry any dead body and should not engage himself in any such acts, and he would have to undergo against a purifying Sanskar if he acts so'. 'This objection is applicable to all the circumstances excepting the dead body of his father, as per Nirnaya Sindhu. Manu says, 'A man with celibacy, if carries dead body of his perceptor, teacher, mother, father, or Guru on their death, does not attract any sin or drawback.' Kaladarsha has said, 'A celibate does not attract any sin or fall from his celibacy if he attends or performs funeral rites of his preceptor, mother, father or maternal father. On other occasions, even like touching the feet of Guru's wife while paying respect to her, are treated as, forbidden acts. Moreover, it is said in the thirty seventh chapter of the Kashi Khanda of Skanda Purana that the inherent nature of a woman is very agile, therefore it is treated as harmful to man. The wise people never fall a prey to a womanly relation because such relation brings down fall equally even in the lives of worldly wise and laymen. If we think about gazing a woman, we can learn well from the occasion of great celibate Narada and Parvata who became mokey faced on looking at the charming arm and hand of the princess of king Ambarisha, and on becoming amorous due to such scene.